Supplementary: Inductive Errors
Proof-by-example arguments are always fallacious since proper induction always extends from the general to the specific. Generalizations, however, are irrational only when relevant factors that warrant an exception are ignored, or the degree of inductive evidence does not match the degree of certainty in the conclusion.
Inductive errors are probably the most common of all cognitive errors. Human brains are constantly striving to extract patterns from data to derive predictive advantage. In so doing, we often see patterns that do not actually exist, or place a degree of confidence in perceived patterns that is incommensurate to the actual strength of the relevant evidence.
- Proof by example
- Faulty generalization
- Bottom-up justification
- Bottom-up condemnation
- Special Case: Abstraction fallacy
- Special Case: Spotlight fallacy
- Special Case: Hasty generalization
- Special Case: Chronological snobbery