Supplementary: Inductive Errors

The following chart shows the relationship between the four modes of two fallacies related to induction; the positive and negative proof-by-example fallacies, and the positive and negative faulty generalization fallacies.
Proof-by-example arguments are always fallacious since proper induction always extends from the general to the specific. Generalizations, however, are irrational only when relevant factors that warrant an exception are ignored, or the degree of inductive evidence does not match the degree of certainty in the conclusion.

Inductive errors are probably the most common of all cognitive errors. Human brains are constantly striving to extract patterns from data to derive predictive advantage. In so doing, we often see patterns that do not actually exist, or place a degree of confidence in perceived patterns that is incommensurate to the actual strength of the relevant evidence.

Inductive errors

2 Responses to Supplementary: Inductive Errors

  1. Pingback: The modern scientific method: Imagine – check – deduct – test | Science or fiction?

  2. Pingback: How to arrive at a reliable model | The principles of science

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