Perspectival

Perspectival fallacies arise from an improper understanding of the subjective/objective distinction, and especially of the limits of subjective experience.

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Psychologist’s fallacy:

Perspectival Fallacy
Definition Example
When an observer presupposes the objectivity of his own perspective when analyzing a behavioral event. My buddies probably wish they were not married just as I do.
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Historian’s fallacy:

Perspectival Fallacy
Definition Example
When it is claimed that decision makers in the past viewed events from the same perspective and had the same information as those currently analyzing the decision. If I had lived in medieval times, I would certainly not have thought the sun circled the earth as did all the other fools!
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Appeal to novelty:

Definition Example
When a something is claimed to be superior or better solely based on it being new or modern. This brilliant new unprecedented strategy that the management has introduced is revolutionary and will change the way we do business!
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Chronological snobbery:

Definition Example
When a conclusion is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held in an era when something else that was clearly false was also commonly held. Why must we accept medieval art as having any value when it emerged from the same period in which people burned witches and believed in fairies?
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Spotlight fallacy:

Perspectival Fallacy
Definition Example
When it is uncritically assumed that every member within a certain category is like those members that receive the most media coverage or public discussion. All the Hispanics I’ve seen interviewed on television are not the least bit shy, so your neighbor Felipe surely can’t be shy!
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Reification:

Definition Example
When an abstraction is treated as if it were a more concrete than is warranted. True love will find you if you only allow yourself to believe in true love.
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Homunculus fallacy:

Definition Example
When a lower level of perception is introduced to explain the mechanism of perception at a higher level, and then the mechanism of the lower level is explained by invoking the same mechanism as found in the higher perception. Our brains recognize a face when light from that face enters our eyes, is passed to our neurons, and then is recognized as a face by our neurons.
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Appeal to nature:

Definition Example
When something is deemed correct or good if it is natural, and is deemed incorrect or bad if it is unnatural. Birds are monogamous. Therefore, humans should also be monogamous.
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Human standard fallacy:

Definition Example
When a human law, categorization, definition or judgment is assumed to supersede objective fact. Because there is a law against chewing gum on Wednesdays, it is immoral to chew gum on Wednesdays.
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Retrospective determinism:

Definition Example
When it is assumed that, because some event has occurred, its occurrence was inevitable, and should have been clear from the “obvious” causes. From the time the young Wayne Gretzky first put on skates, it was obvious from his natural ability and determination that he was destined for greatness.
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