Confidence as a validator:

Definition Example
When the certainty one feels in respect to a claim is submitted as evidence for the truth of that claim. I’ve never swayed from my confidence that Santa is real, and there is no degree of evidence that can counter the way I feel. How can you claim I’m wrong?
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Misleading vividness:

Definition Example
involves describing an occurrence, often exceptional, in vivid detail, to distort the actual severity of the problem. You should never date a Texas girl. My friend dated one, and she slashed the tires on his car and killed his dog.
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Judgmental language:

Definition Example
insulting or pejorative language to influence the recipient’s judgment. Your position on free community health checks is accepted only by prostitutes! Only whores would accept such a concept!
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Argumentum ad baculum:

Definition Example
When a position is promoted through coercion or threats of force. You’ve been a good employee up to this point, John. And I think you’ll agree that shining my shoes is not nearly as humiliating as losing your job for not shining my shoes.
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Ad hominem:

Definition Example
When the person is attacked instead of the argument. What would you know about economics? You filed for bankruptcy last year!
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Appeal to novelty:

Definition Example
When a something is claimed to be superior or better solely based on it being new or modern. This brilliant new unprecedented strategy that the management has introduced is revolutionary and will change the way we do business!
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Appeal to tradition:

Definition Example
When a claim is deemed true on the basis that it has a long-standing tradition behind it. Polygamy is wrong because marriage here in our country has long been only between one man and one women.
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Wishful thinking:

Definition Example
When a position is encouraged based on what might be pleasing to imagine, rather than based on evidence or reason. If there were no life after death, then this life would be rather meaningless, and so I choose to believe we have an eternal soul.
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Appeal to spite:

Emotional Fallacy
Definition Example
When an appeal to bitterness or spite towards the proponents of an opposing position is used in an attempt to make or bolster an argument. If you think we should bailout that bank, consider that the incompetent traders who created this financial fiasco will be celebrating with champagne while we, the common folk, will be paying even higher taxes.
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Appeal to ridicule:

Emotional Fallacy
Definition Example
When ridicule or shame is introduced in an attempt to invalidate the opposing position. So, since you believe in evolution, you have to believe your grandfather was an ape! Hilarious!
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Appeal to pity:

Emotional Fallacy
Definition Example
Evoking sympathy in an attempt to validate a position. If there is no after-life, then the lives of tens of millions suffering in poverty have no meaning.
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Appeal to motive:

Definition Example
When a claim is dismissed, by calling into question the motives of its sponsor. You are claiming that my girlfriend is cheating on me only because you want to date her yourself!
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Appeal to flattery:

Emotional Fallacy
Definition Example
When flattery is employed as a reason to accept a particular conclusion. Your intelligence prevents you from rejecting the truth of my claim.
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Appeal to fear:

Emotional Fallacy
Definition Example
When fear is employed as a reason to hold to a particular conclusion. If you don’t vote her into office, terrorism will accelerate, and our great nation will fall.
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Appeal to emotion:

Definition Example
When a position is promoted through the manipulation of emotions, rather than through the presentation of an actual argument. It would be awesome to know that we were not alone in the universe. Would you want to live in a universe without extraterrestrial neighbors?
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Appeal to consequences:

Definition Example
When it is assumed that the positive/negative consequences of a claim, to some degree, reflect the truth/falsehood of that claim. If a virus erased my hard-drive, I’d loose all my work documents. So it can’t possibly happen.
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Appeal to authority:

Definition Example
When a claim is deemed true because of the position, authority or esteem of the person asserting it. My sociology professor says globalization has had a net negative effect on humanity, so it is obviously true.
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